Part 1 Section A.2.4.2 Long-term Contracts 長期契約

Long term contract 長期契約

種類

  • Over time
    • Percentage-of-completion method: 工事進行基準
    • (SAC606 では、over time と定義)
  • Point in time
    • Complete-contract method: 工事完成基準
    • (SAC606 では、point in time と定義)

The criteria of Over time (the cost-to-cost method)

Under ASC 606-10-25-27, a company satisfies a performance obligation over time and recognizes the revenue and costs over time if at least one of the following three criteria is met:
(1)The customer simultaneously receives and consumes the benefits provided by the company’s performance as the company is performing its obligations under the contract.
(2)The company’s performance creates or enhances an asset such as work in process that the customer controls as the work is being done.
(3)The company’s performance does not create an asset with an alternative use to the company, and the company has an enforceable right to payment for performance completed to date.

仕訳

Point-in -Time Recognition

①費用計上

DebitCredit
Construction in process
(CIP)
原価 Cash原価

②請求

DebitCredit
Accounts receivable
(A/R)
契約に基づく
請求額 
Billings on construction
in process (BCP)
契約に基づく
請求額

③損失計上

DebitCredit
Loss on long-term contract損失額 Construction in process
(CIP)
損失額

④プロジェクト完了

DebitCredit
Billings on construction
in process (BCP)
総請求額 Revenue on
point-in-time contracts
総請求額
Construction expense総原価Construction in process
(CIP)
総原価

⑤決算期のB/S

  1. CIP と BCP は、ネットしたうえで、プロジェクト毎に差額を計算する
    • If CIP > BCP
      • contract asset: costs of in-process point-in-time contracts in excess of related costs
    • If CIP < BCP
      • contract liability: billings of in-process point-in-time contracts in excess of related costs
  2. プロジェクト毎に、contract asset か contract liability を集計する
CIPBCPcontract
asset
contract
liability
Project A100300200
Project B200100100
Project C20025050
Company’s B/S100250

Over-time Recognition

⑥収益認識(途中年度)

DebitCredit
Cost incurred原価 Revenue on
point-in-time contracts
進捗額
Construction in process
(CIP)
粗利額

⑦プロジェクト完了

DebitCredit
Billings on construction
in process (BCP)
総請求額 Construction in process
(CIP)
総進捗額

計算問題

複数プロジェクトを並べた出題

a/cPJT-1PJT-2
Contract price420,000300,000
Cost incurred during 2020240,000280,000
Estimated costs to complete120,00040,000
Billed to customers during 2020150,000270,000
Received from customers during 202090,000250,000

問1)point-in-time の場合、2020年の損益
  PJT-1:未完了→ゼロ
  PJT-2:損失発生→ -20,000(∵損失は完了を待たずして認識すべきだから)

問2)point-in-time の場合、2020年の contract asset と contract liability
  PJT-1:
   CIP:240,000(発生原価)
   BCP:150,000(請求額)
   → CIP > BVP より、contract asset = 90,000
  PJT-2:
   CIP:280,000(発生原価)- 20,000(損失)= 260,000
   BCP:270,000(請求額)
   → CIP < BCP より、contract liability = 10,000

問3)over-time の場合、2020年の損益
  PJT-1:
   ①期待利益 = 420,000 – (240,000 + 120,000) = 60,000
   ②進捗率 = 240,000 ÷ (240,000 + 120,000) = .666666
   ③年度利益 = 60,000 × 0.66666 = 40,000
  PJT-2:
   ①期待利益 = 300,000 – (280,000 + 40,000) = -20,000
   ②損失の場合は進捗率は常に100%
   ③年度利益 = -20,000

問4)over-time の場合、2020年の CIP
  PJT1:CIP=発生原価+損益=240,000+40,000=280,000
  PJT2:CIP=発生原価+損益=280,000+(-2,000)=260,000

複数期間を並べた出題

①コストがプロジェクト期間中に合計予測値として与えられている

Year 0Year 1Year 2Year 3Year 4
Contract price1,500,000
Estimated total cost1,200,0001,300,0001,550,0001,550,000
Cost incurred400,000200,000750,000200,000
Billings375,000375,000375,000375,000
Collections350,000300,000500,000200,000
* Year 3 の進捗率の計算は、(400,000 + 200,000 + 750,000) ÷ 1,550,000 = 0.8709

②コストがプロジェクト期間中に累計実績値として与えられている

Year 0Year 1Year 2Year 3Year 4
Contract price1,500,000
Actual costs Incurred to date400,000600,0001,350,0001,550,000
Estimated cost to complete800,000700,000200,0000
Billings during the year375,000375,000375,000375,000
Collections during the year350,000300,000500,000200,000
* Year 3 の進捗率の計算は、1,350,000 ÷ (1,350,000 + 200,000) = 0.8709

③コストがプロジェクト期間中に年度ごとに与えらえている

Year 0Year 1Year 2Year 3Year 4
Contract price1,500,000
Costs Incurred during the year400,000200,000750,000200,000
Estimated cost to complete800,000700,000200,0000
Billings during the year375,000375,000375,000375,000
Collections during the year350,000300,000380,000420,000
* Year 3 の進捗率の計算は、(400,000 + 200,000 + 750,000) ÷ (400,000 + 200,000 + 750,000 + 200,000) = 0.8709

⑦単期間の損益 (over-time)

Year 0Year 1Year 2Year 3Year 4
Contract price1,500,000
Actual costs Incurred to date400,000600,0001,350,0001,550,000
Estimated cost to complete800,000700,000200,0000
Billings during the year375,000375,000375,000375,000
Collections during the year350,000300,000500,000200,000
* Year 1 の損益は、
① estimated profit = 1,500,000 – (400,000 + 800,000) = 300,000
② 進捗率 = 400,000 ÷ (400,000 + 800,000) = 0.3333
③ 損益 = 300,000 × 0.3333 = 100,000

⑧プロジェクト期間中の特定年度の損益 (over-time)

Year 0Year 1Year 2Year 3Year 4
Contract price1,500,000
Actual costs Incurred to date400,000600,0001,350,0001,550,000
Estimated cost to complete800,000700,000200,0000
Billings during the year375,000375,000375,000375,000
Collections during the year350,000300,000500,000200,000
* Year 2 の損益は、
① estimated profit = 1,500,000 – (600,000 + 700,000) = 200,000
② 進捗率 = 600,000 ÷ (600,000 + 700,000) = 0.4615
③ 損益TY2 = 200,000 × 0.4615 = 92,308
④ 損益PY2 = 損益TY2 – 損益TY1 = 92,308 – 100,000 = -7,692

⑨プロジェクト期間中の特定年度の損益 (point-in-time)

Year 0Year 1Year 2Year 3Year 4
Contract price1,500,000
Actual costs Incurred to date400,000600,0001,350,0001,550,000
Estimated cost to complete800,000700,000200,0000
Billings during the year375,000375,000375,000375,000
Collections during the year350,000300,000500,000200,000
* Year 2 の損益 = 0
* Year 3 の損益 = -50,000

⑩プロジェクト期間中の特定年度までの通算損益 (over-time)

Year 0Year 1Year 2Year 3Year 4
Contract price1,500,000
Actual costs Incurred to date400,000600,0001,350,0001,550,000
Estimated cost to complete800,000700,000200,0000
Billings during the year375,000375,000375,000375,000
Collections during the year350,000300,000500,000200,000
* Year 2 までの通算損益(through profit)は、
① estimated profit = 1,500,000 – (600,000 + 700,000) = 200,000
② 進捗率 = 600,000 ÷ (600,000 + 700,000) = 0.4615
③ 損益TY2 = 200,000 × 0.4615 = 92,308

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