Part 2 Section C.4. Pricing 値決め

Impact of Supply and Demand on Pricing

値付けを考える際に欠かせない “Three Cs”

  • Customer demand
  • Competitors’ prices
  • Costs

Pricing Strategy

論点 マークアップ法とターゲットプライシングの違い

  • Mark-up pricing
    • is based on existing costs and a desired return.
    • The price is then determined by adding the product cost and desired mark-up.
    • This method provides little incentive to reduce costs as long as sales are profitable.
  • Target costing
    • Product prices are determined by reviewing competitive pricing and setting prices according to market strategies and positioning.
    • Target costing moves from the existing market prices to the process of managing the product costs in order to earn a desired return.
    • Target costing motivates process improvements.
    • The process is intended to increase or maintain sales while increasing product profitability by reducing product costs through the elimination of non-value added activities.

Price Elasticity of Demand 需要の価格弾力性

弾力的

  • 価格のわずかな上昇で需要が大きく減少する
  • 買い手市場
  • コンペチタ―が多い
  • 代替商品が多い

非弾力的

  • 価格が大きく上昇しても需要はさほど減少しない
  • 売り手市場
  • コンペチタ―が少ない
  • 代替商品が少ない

完全に弾力的(水平)

  • 価格は市場(消費者)が決めるので、生産者は Price taker に甘んじるしかない
  • 市場価格でしか売ることができない($4
  • 完全な買い手市場(完全競争市場:perfectly competitive market)

完全に非弾力的(垂直)

  • 価格は企業(生産者)が決めるので、生産者は Price maker になれる
  • 需要数量はあらかじめ決まっている
  • 完全な売り手市場
  • 例)特定の疾患向け医薬品は、薬価がいくらであろうと、患者(消費者)は購入しようとする。ただし、患者数は短期では一定である(600人

弾力性(弾力値)の計算方法

The Percentage Method

● 通常の弾力性の計算方法

価格が減少の方向で計算した時と、増加の方向で計算した時とで、弾力性の計算結果が異なる

\( \displaystyle \bf E_d = \frac{\% \Delta Q}{\% \Delta P} \)

Where:
Ed = The price elasticity of demand
%ΔQ = Percentage change in quantity demanded
%ΔP = Percentage change in price

The Midpoint Method / The Arc Method

● USCMA の試験で問われる計算方法

価格が減少の方向で計算した時でも、増加の方向で計算した時でも、弾力性の計算結果は同じになる

\( \displaystyle \bf E_d = \frac{(Q_2 – Q_1) \div [(Q_2 + Q_1) \div 2]}{(P_2 – P_1) \div [(P_2 + P_1) \div 2]} \)

Classification of Levels of Elasticity

Ed = ∞Perfect elasticPerfect elasticity cannot be calculated.
Only a firm operating in perfect competition has perfect elasticity for its product.
ex. agriculture industry
水平 horizontal
Ed > 1Relatively elasticAny percentage change in price results in a larger percentage change in the quantity demand.
Ed = 1Unitary elasticAny percentage change in price will cause the quantity demanded to change by exactly the same percentage.
45度線
Ed < 1Relatively inelasticAny percentage change in price results in a smaller percentage change in the quantity demand.
Ed = 0Perfectly inelasticAny percentage change in price results in no change in the quantity demand.
垂直 vertical

Price Elasticity and Total Revenue

\( \displaystyle \bf Total~Revenue = Price \times Quantity \)

Elastic Ed > 1Inelastic Ed < 1Unitary Elasticity Ed = 1
Price Increases(TR Decreases)TR IncreasesTR is unchanged
Price DeceasesTR Increases(TR Decreases)TR is unchanged
これは暗記しておく!

Market Structure 市場構造

Four Market Structures and Strategies

Perfect
Competition
完全競争
Monopolistic
Competition
独占的競争
Oligopoly
寡占
Monopoly
独占
Number of firms
in the industry
企業数
Many
(High
competitive)
Many
(High
competitive)
Few
(Moderately
competitive)
One
(No
competitive)
Size of firms
relative to industry
企業規模
SmallSmallLarge100% of
industry
Barriers to entry
参入障壁
None
(Easy to enter
industry)
Low
(Easy to enter
industry)
High
(Difficult to enter
industry because
of Economics of
Scale
)
Insurmountable
(No entry is
possible)
Differentiation of
Product
製品差別化
None
(All firms sell
the same
commodity
Product)
Some
(Firms sell slightly
different products
that are close
substitutes)
Various
(Firms usually sell
differentiated
products)
None
(One firm sells
only one
Product)
Perfect
Competition
完全競争
Monopolistic
Competition
独占的競争
Oligopoly
寡占
Monopoly
独占
Elasticity of
Demand
需要の価格
弾力性
Perfect elastic
(Firm sells at
the given
market price)
Highly elastic
but downward
sloping

(Firm can adjust
quantity of
products sold
without affecting
the price very
much)
Firms face
a kinked
downward
sloping
Inelastic
(Firm faces
the entire
demand curve
for the product,
which slopes
downward)
Firm’s Control
over Price &
Quantity
管理可能性
Firm has control
over quantity
produced only
;
price is set by the
market, firm
must accept the
market price
Firm has control
mostly over
quantity

produced; price
is mostly set
by the market
Firm has control
over both
the
quantity
produced & the
price charged
Firm has control
over both

quantity and
price
Pricing Strategy
価格戦略
P =MC = MC
Accepts market
price
P > MC = MC
Searches for best
price to maximize
profits
P > MC = MC
Does not like to
engage in price
competition
P > MC = MC
Searches for
optimum price
Strategies
諸戦略
Maintain
market share &
responsiveness
of sales price
to
market conditions
Maintain
market share,
enhance product
differentiation
,
and allocate
resources
to
advertising, MK
& production
research
Enhance market
share
, proper
spending on
advertising, &
proper adaption
to changes

in price
Ignore market
share
& focus
on profitability
from production
levels
that
maximize profits

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